Friday, 16 May 2014
Signs and Symptoms
Some early symptoms that correlate with a later diagnosis of dyslexia include delays in speech, letter reversal or mirror writing, and being easily distracted by background noise. This pattern of early distractibility is partially explained by the co-occurrence of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Although each disorder occurs in approximately 5% of children, 25-40% of children with either dyslexia or ADHD meet criteria for the other disorder.
At later ages symptoms can include a difficulty identifying or generating rhyming words, or counting syllables in words (phonological awareness), a difficulty segmenting words into individual sounds, or blending sounds to make words, a difficulty with word retrieval or naming problems (see anomic aphasia)), commonly very poor spelling, which has been called dysorthographia or dysgraphia (orthographic coding), whole-word guesses, and tendencies to omit or add letters or words when writing and reading are considered classic signs. Other classic signs for teenagers and adults with dyslexia include trouble with summarizing a story, memorizing, reading aloud, and learning a foreign language.
A common misconception about dyslexia is that dyslexic readers write words backwards or move letters around when reading this only occurs in a very small population of dyslexic readers. Individuals with dyslexia are better identified by reading accuracy, fluency, and writing skills that do not seem to match their level of intelligence from prior observations.
Early Warning Signs of Dyslexia
SPEECH AND LANGUAGE
- Word-naming problems
- Word mispronunciation
- Jumbling words
- Poor use of syntax
- Hesitate speech
- Needs frequent presentation of a word before being able to use it accurately and consistently
- Some children will be very poor at drawing; alternatively they could be the total opposite and very good with colour.
- They may find it difficult to sort beads by shapes
- Have difficulty in learning to dress themselves, putting clothes on inside out and not remembering which comes first, a vest of shirt, as well as difficulty with buttons and button holes.
- May put their shoes on the wrong foot as well as have difficulty in learning to tie their laces
- They struggle with turning on and off taps, and have difficulty in turning door knobs.
- They may find doing jigsaw puzzles or making models difficult.
- They find it difficult to use a pair of scissors
- They will find it difficult to trace
- They may not be able to use a rubber effectively
- They tend to hold a pencil awkwardly
- Learning to do a tie will be extremely difficult
GROSS MOTOR SKILLS
- They find hopping difficult
- They constantly bumping into people and objects
- They have tendency to knock things over or to drop things
- Learning to ride a bicycle can be a tortuous process
- Setting the table may be difficult – knives and forks may be put on the wrong side
- Learning to swim can be difficult for some children, especially the breaststroke.
- Playground games may be difficult, especially if they involve words such as left/right, up/down, backwards/forwards and front/behind.
- Learning to dance may be difficult for some children.